Endocrinology & Diabetes (2023)

The endocrine system is made of eight glands that produce many hormones. Hormones go through the bloodstream to the organs and tissues telling various parts of the body how to form and function. These hormones are responsible for growth, development, reproduction, sexual function, mood, and metabolism (how the body converts food and drink to energy).

Endocrine disorders occur when the body makes too much or too little of a hormone or doesn’t use the hormone correctly.

At our Endocrine Clinic, we evaluate, monitor, and treat children with endocrine disorders, from infancy through adolescence.

Endocrinology & Diabetes (1)

Make An Appointment

Clinic Hours
Omaha: Monday – Friday 8 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.
Lincoln: Monday – Friday 8 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.
Sioux City: Rotating days two times a month 8:30 a.m. – 4 p.m.
Phone 402-955-3871 | Fax 402-955-8738

What Sets Children’s Apart?

We are the only providers of pediatric endocrinology care within the state of Nebraska:

  • Our team consists of pediatric endocrinologists, pediatric nurse practitioners and physician assistants, nurse educators, social workers, case managers, dieticians, behavioral health specialists, and child life specialists.
  • We are the only site that provides multispecialty care in one location. Our multispecialty clinics include a Thyroid Clinic and Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) Clinic.
  • Our Diabetes Education Program is the only pediatric-specific program in the state of Nebraska that is accredited by the American Diabetes Association. This accreditation recognizes programs that meet National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education. These standards have been shown to improve results and quality of life for patients with diabetes, reduce hospitalizations, and lower costs of care.
  • The Children’s endocrinology providers participate in research groups that help them stay abreast of the most up-to-date information on caring for children with endocrine disorders. One of these is the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, a research group dedicated to finding a way to prevent type 1 diabetes.
  • Our DRIVE Clinic takes a specialized approach to managing children with diabetes by offering ongoing assistance from providers, behavioral health specialists, social workers, case managers, nurse educators, dieticians, and others support services.

Endocrinology & Diabetes (2)

Patient Education: Diabetes

Learn about caring for your child with diabetes.

Read More

(Video) Breaking down diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Conditions We Treat

Our team of specialists can diagnose and treat many types of endocrine conditions, including:

  • Adrenal Gland Conditions

    The adrenal gland is responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone which help regulate metabolism and blood pressure and assist the body’s response to stress.

    • Addison’s Diseases (Arenal Insufficiency) is when the body does not produce enough cortisol and/or aldosterone. This may cause weight loss, loss of appetite, tiredness, low blood pressure, low blood sugar, or salt/water imbalance.
    • Cushing’s Disease is when there is too much cortisol in the body. This may cause obesity around the upper body, weakened muscles, round flushed face, stretch marks, easy bruising, or increased blood pressure.
  • Diabetes

    Insulin is a hormone that carries sugar from food to the body’s cells for energy. But when the body doesn’t get enough insulinor doesn’t use it well, diabetes develops because sugar remains in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes:

    • Type 1: This used to be referred to as “juvenile diabetes.” With type 1, the body does not make any insulin. There is currently no way to prevent type 1 diabetes.
    • Type 2: With this form of diabetes, the body either does not create enough insulin, or does not use insulin well. Type 2 diabetes can be affected by lifestyle factors, such as a poor diet or not getting enough exercise. It used to be called “adult-onset diabetes.” However, with the increase in childhood obesity, it has become more common in children and young adults.
  • Hyperthyroidism And Hypothyroidism

    This is when the thyroid gland doesn’t work as it should. The thyroid is responsible for producing the thyroid hormone, which plays a significant role in metabolism, growth, and organ function.

    • Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid): The thyroid produces too much thyroid hormone. Body function and metabolism speed up, causing symptoms such as nervousness, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, rapid heartbeat, or irritability. At first, hyperthyroidism can make a child feel very energetic. However, it can eventually cause the body to break down, leading to constant tiredness.
    • Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid): The thyroid does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Body processes begin slowing down, causing symptoms such as weight gain, dry skin, hair loss, constipation, and exhaustion.
  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    People with this condition have bones that are brittle and can break easily. People with osteogenesis imperfecta may have anywhere from a just a few, to several hundred, fractures throughout their lifetime.

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    This is an imbalance of reproductive hormones in women of childbearing age. This can cause problems in the ovaries — the organs that make the egg that is released each month — and lead to irregular periods, fertility difficulties, acne, weight gain, or hirsutism (hair on parts of the body where usually only men have hair).

  • Puberty Concerns

    Puberty is the time in life when a boy or girl becomes sexually mature. Typically, boys begin puberty between ages 12 and 16, and girls begin between ages 10 and 14. Precocious puberty is when puberty begins too early. Delayed puberty is when it begins later than normal.

Other conditions we treat include:

  • Concerns about your child’s growth
  • Klinefelter Syndrome
  • Noonan Syndrome
  • Prader-Willi Syndrome
  • Russel-Silver Syndrome
  • Septo Optic Dysplasia
  • Turner Syndrome

We offer a wide range of treatments and services. These include:

  • Diabetes management: Helping children learn how to lead a healthy, normal life with diabetes. We teach families about checking blood sugar levels, taking insulin, and developing positive habits (e.g., healthy diet, regular exercise) to keep diabetes under control.
  • Insulin pump management: Teaching families how to use their child’s insulin pump — a small computerized device that delivers insulin to a child with diabetes.
  • Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) Training: Teaching families how to use their child’s CGM, which is a small sensor tube that is placed under the skin, where it takes continuous readings of glucose levels. This information can be sent to a receiving device or phone.
  • Growth hormone management: Prescribing hormone injections for children who have growth hormone deficiency. This treatment allows children to grow and develop, and is usually given over the course of several years.
  • Puberty suppression for precocious puberty: Prescribing a medication that suppresses the release of the hormones that stimulate early puberty. Delaying the onset of puberty until the typical age (ages 12 and 16 in boys, and ages 10 and 14 in girls) increases the likelihood that a child will have regular psychosocial development, and will eventually reach a normal adult height.
  • Thyroid Disease management: Prescribing treatment plans and medications for all thyroid conditions, including hypo- and hyperactive thyroids, as well as thyroid cancer.
  • Bisphosphonate infusions: Medications that provide pain relief and improved bone density in children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

Caring For The Entire Patient

An endocrine disorder doesn’t always start and end with the endocrine system. It can affect other systems of the body, as well as a child’s emotional or psychosocial well-being.

(Video) Endocrinology Webinar: Diabetes Technology

That’s why our patients and their families have access to a variety of resources. Social workers, nutritionists, behavioral health specialists, and providers from many different medical specialties are all on hand to support you and your child manage an endocrine disorder.

Learn more about our support services.

Our Specialists

Monina S. Cabrera M.D.


Salaheddin Elrokhsi M.D., MSc


Bracha K. Goldsweig M.D.


(Video) Types of Diabetes – Internal Medicine / Endocrinology | Lecturio

Zoe M. Gonzalez-Garcia M.D.

Thyroid Disease

Heather Wadams M.D.


Earline J. Edwards MSN, APRN-NP, CDE


Christina M. Lens PA


Emily C. Pietrantone APRN


What To Do Next

For Patients

Make An Appointment

To make an appointment, call 402-955-3871 andpress ‘1’ to reach Centralized Scheduling.

Seeing An Endocrine Specialist

When a pediatrician suspects an endocrine problem, your child may be referred to an endocrinologist. Once the pediatrician has made an official referral within the Children’s system, you will be able to schedule an appointment.

If your child has diabetes, please bring meters, insulin pumps, and/or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices to the appointment.

Helpful Resources

JDRF is committed to improving lives today and tomorrow by accelerating life-changing breakthroughs to cure, prevent and treat T1D and its complications. To seek educational and supportive resources from JDRF resources click here.

(Video) Endocrinology Webinar: Medication Management in Diabetes

For Referring Providers

The Physicians’ Priority Line is your 24-hour link to pediatric specialists at Children’s for referrals, emergency and urgent consults, physician-to-physician consults, admissions, and transport services. Call 855-850-KIDS (5437).

Learn more about referring patients.


What does an endocrinologist do for a diabetic? ›

To help you best manage your diabetes, an endocrinologist will help you by making sure you understand the disease process first. They will then discuss treatment options and how best to manage the disease.

What is the difference between endocrinology and diabetes? ›

Both are a physician practicing internal medicine, but their ways of treatment differ. Diabetologists are more specific to diabetes and its management, while Endocrinologists are more towards the entire endocrine system including Pancreas and Insulin.

Does an endocrinologist treat people with diabetes? ›

A diabetes specialist is called an endocrinologist. Endocrinologists specialize in the glands of the endocrine (hormone) system. The pancreas is the gland involved in diabetes. The pancreas produces insulin, and problems with insulin are what managing your diabetes is about.

What are signs of endocrine problems? ›

While each endocrine disorder has its own set of symptoms, some of the most common symptoms found among many of them include:
  • Mood swings.
  • Fatigue.
  • Weakness.
  • Unintended weight fluctuations.
  • Changes in blood glucose levels or cholesterol levels.

What will an endocrinologist do on a first visit? ›

When you first visit, the endocrinologist will ask you a series of questions to learn more about your symptoms, health habits, other medical conditions, medications, and family history of hormone-related problems. They will consult with your referring doctor and review your medical records.

What hormone increases blood sugar? ›

Glucagon is a hormone that your pancreas makes to help regulate your blood glucose (sugar) levels. Glucagon increases your blood sugar level and prevents it from dropping too low, whereas insulin, another hormone, decreases blood sugar levels.

When should a woman see an endocrinologist? ›

Endocrinologists typically treat:

Symptoms include sudden weight change, heart rate fluctuation, swelling of the neck, mood or energy swings, hair loss. Pituitary Problems – i.e., Diminished fertility and libido, hair loss. Adrenal problems. Chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and weight ...

Which hormone deficiency in the body causes diabetes? ›

Diabetes occurs when the pancreas, a gland behind the stomach, does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, or the body cannot use insulin properly. Insulin helps carry sugar from the bloodstream into the cells.

When should you see an endocrinologist for diabetes? ›

Your regular doctor can treat diabetes, but they might refer you to an endocrinologist when: You're brand new to diabetes and need to learn how to manage it. They don't have a lot of experience treating diabetes. You take a lot of shots or use an insulin pump.

What is the most common disorder of the endocrine system? ›

In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.

Can an endocrinologist help with weight loss? ›

Endocrinologists, who are specialists in hormones and metabolism, can evaluate and treat obesity as well as weight-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. They can prescribe anti-obesity medications and care for you throughout your weight journey.

What kind of tests do endocrinologists do? ›

Several tests, primarily a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assessment, can show how well your thyroid is working. Other tests can assess for parathyroid conditions. Blood tests for luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) can help to detect female hormonal issues.

What is the best doctor to see for diabetes? ›

Endocrinologist. An endocrinologist is a doctor who has special training and experience in treating people with diabetes. You should see yours regularly.

How do you lower your blood sugar? ›

  1. Exercise regularly. ...
  2. Manage your carb intake. ...
  3. Eat more fiber. ...
  4. Drink water and stay hydrated. ...
  5. Implement portion control. ...
  6. Choose foods with a low glycemic index. ...
  7. Try to manage your stress levels. ...
  8. Monitor your blood sugar levels.

What happens to the body when the endocrine system fails? ›

Without your endocrine glands — and the hormones they release — your cells wouldn't know when to do important things. For instance, your bones wouldn't get the message that it's time for you to grow and get bigger.

What are some common endocrine disorders? ›

5 Most Common Endocrine Disorders
  • Diabetes. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder in the United States. ...
  • Thyroid Disorders. Thyroid disorders follow closely behind diabetes in the United States. ...
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) ...
  • Low Testosterone. ...
  • Osteoporosis.

How long does an endocrine referral take? ›

All endocrine referrals are to be managed within 18 weeks, except for patients with actual or suspected endocrine malignancy which are reported under the Cancer Waiting Times – achievement of two week wait, 31 day wait to first treatment, 31 day wait to subsequent treatment, 62 day wait from referral to first treatment ...

Should I see an endocrinologist for prediabetes? ›

If you are only seeing a GP (General Practitioner) you may need to be referred to a specialist known as an, endocrinologist. They are trained to look at problems affecting the endocrine system. Most likely, they will be the ones to order further testing for certain conditions that can lead to prediabetes.

Can your pancreas start working again type 2 diabetes? ›

The results from this latest study suggest that – if remission is achieved – the insulin-producing capacity of the pancreas can be restored to levels similar to those in people who had never been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

How do I balance my hormones and blood sugar? ›

Ultimately, the right diet for you is the one that keeps you the fullest the longest.
  1. Avoid processed sugar. Eating foods high in sugar contributes to blood sugar spikes, hormone imbalances, gut issues and insulin resistance. ...
  2. Increasing protein. ...
  3. Increasing fat. ...
  4. Eat leafy greens.

What hormone triggers sleepiness? ›

But when darkness comes at night, the SCN sends messages to the pineal gland. This gland triggers the release of the chemical melatonin. Melatonin makes you feel sleepy and ready for bed.

Can an endocrinologist help with fatigue? ›

If you experience ongoing fatigue, it could be due to CFS or one of many disorders and diseases with fatigue as a symptom. For this reason, it's important to consult with an endocrinologist at The Endocrine Center to get an accurate diagnosis.

How can I get my hormone levels checked? ›

Blood test

Your doctor will send a sample of your blood to a lab for testing. Most hormones can be detected in the blood. A doctor can request a blood test to check your thyroid and your levels of estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol.

Can an endocrinologist help with hormone imbalance? ›

Primary healthcare providers can diagnose and help you manage many hormonal imbalances, but you may benefit from seeing an endocrinologist. An endocrinologist is a healthcare provider who specializes in endocrinology, a field of medicine that studies conditions related to your hormones.

What are the 3 main signs of diabetes? ›

The main symptoms of diabetes are described as the three polys - polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. Individuals with high risk for developing diabetes should be alert to these symptoms and seek medical attention if they notice the above symptoms.

What is the real cause of diabetes? ›

The exact cause of most types of diabetes is unknown. In all cases, sugar builds up in the bloodstream. This is because the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes may be caused by a combination of genetic or environmental factors.

Can I get diabetes from eating too much sugar? ›

Though we know sugar doesn't directly cause type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to get it if you are overweight. You gain weight when you take in more calories than your body needs, and sugary foods and drinks contain a lot of calories.

How often should a diabetic see an endocrinologist? ›

If you take insulin, you should probably see your diabetes doctor every 3 or 4 months. Otherwise, you can go a little longer between visits, every 4 to 6 months. You may have to go more often when your diabetes isn't under control, you have complications, or you have new symptoms or they get worse.

What is the best doctor to see for diabetes? ›

Endocrinologist. An endocrinologist is a doctor who has special training and experience in treating people with diabetes. You should see yours regularly.

How does an endocrinologist test for diabetes? ›

Accurate Diagnosis of Hormone Disorders

Tests to detect diabetes and prediabetes include the blood glucose test and the glycosylated hemoglobin test (A1c).

What is too high for blood sugar? ›

Hyperglycemia usually doesn't cause symptoms until blood sugar (glucose) levels are high — above 180 to 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 10 to 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).

What do diabetics do everyday? ›

Eat healthy food. Get regular exercise. Take your diabetes medicine. Test your blood sugar.

What tests should diabetics have annually? ›

The following eight diabetes exams and tests will help you get the health care you need:
  • A1C test. ...
  • Blood pressure checks. ...
  • Cholesterol test. ...
  • Foot exam. ...
  • Eye exam. ...
  • Kidney test. ...
  • Dental exam. ...
  • Electrocardiogram.
7 Apr 2015

How often should a diabetic get their eyes checked? ›

Even if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye doctor who takes care of people with diabetes. An eye doctor has equipment that can check the back of your eye much better than your regular doctor can.

What is the safest drug for diabetes? ›

Official answer. Most experts consider metformin to be the safest medicine for type 2 diabetes because it has been used for many decades, is effective, affordable, and safe. Metformin is recommended as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

What are the side effects of metformin? ›

Side effects of metformin
  • Feeling sick (nausea) Take metformin with food to reduce the chances of feeling sick. ...
  • Being sick (vomiting) Take small, frequent sips of water or squash to avoid dehydration. ...
  • Diarrhoea. ...
  • Stomach ache. ...
  • Loss of appetite. ...
  • A metallic taste in the mouth.

What is the best treatment for diabetes? ›

Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others) is generally the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It works primarily by lowering glucose production in the liver and improving your body's sensitivity to insulin so that your body uses insulin more effectively.

What happens in an endocrinology appointment? ›

An endocrinologist visit isn't that different from an ordinary doctor's visit. The visit usually entails an analysis of your medical history, a full-body examination, and blood and urine samples. The doctor will begin by taking your vitals and assessing your weight and height.

When should a woman see an endocrinologist? ›

Endocrinologists typically treat:

Symptoms include sudden weight change, heart rate fluctuation, swelling of the neck, mood or energy swings, hair loss. Pituitary Problems – i.e., Diminished fertility and libido, hair loss. Adrenal problems. Chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and weight ...

Do endocrinologists do urine tests? ›

A visit to the endocrinologist usually involves: a complete medical history. a head-to-toe exam. blood and urine tests.

How can I flush sugar out of my system fast? ›

7 tips to detox from sugar
  1. Eat breakfast. Eating breakfast with proteins, complex carbohydrates, fiber-rich foods, and healthy fats can keep blood sugar balanced and prevent sugar cravings throughout the day.
  2. Start small. ...
  3. Eat more healthy fats. ...
  4. Add protein. ...
  5. Snack on fruit. ...
  6. Swap your drinks. ...
  7. Stay hydrated.
23 Apr 2021

Are grapes good for diabetics? ›

Grapes are adored, nourishing fruits and are safe for diabetics. People can eat them and add them to their diabetic diets as they do not harm or spike glucose levels. Consuming grapes help to reduce the susceptibility to developing type 2 diabetes.

How can I bring my blood sugar down in hurry? ›

When your blood sugar level gets too high — known as hyperglycemia or high blood glucose — the quickest way to reduce it is to take fast-acting insulin. Exercising is another fast, effective way to lower blood sugar.
Eat a consistent diet
  1. whole grains.
  2. fruits.
  3. vegetables.
  4. lean proteins.


1. Dr. Ritika Puri, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
(Nebraska Medicine Nebraska Medical Center)
2. Endocrinology | Pancreas: Insulin Function
(Ninja Nerd)
3. DAY IN THE LIFE OF A DOCTOR: Diabetes Clinic (Endocrinology Rotation)
(Violin MD)
4. Dr. Anery Patel, Diabetes, Endocrinology, Metabolism
(Nebraska Medicine Nebraska Medical Center)
5. Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2) & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
6. What is diabetes mellitus? | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Van Hayes

Last Updated: 03/31/2023

Views: 5437

Rating: 4.6 / 5 (66 voted)

Reviews: 89% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Van Hayes

Birthday: 1994-06-07

Address: 2004 Kling Rapid, New Destiny, MT 64658-2367

Phone: +512425013758

Job: National Farming Director

Hobby: Reading, Polo, Genealogy, amateur radio, Scouting, Stand-up comedy, Cryptography

Introduction: My name is Van Hayes, I am a thankful, friendly, smiling, calm, powerful, fine, enthusiastic person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.